There are two species of skunks in Washington State. The Spotted Skunk and the Striped Skunk.
The Spotted Skunk is the smaller one. Adults range in length from 13 – 22 inches, including their tails. They are black, generally with a white spot on their forehead, one spot under each ear, and 4 broken white stripes along the neck, back and sides.
Striped Skunks vary from 21- 32 inches in length, including their tails. They are black with two broad white stripes on their back that begin at a white cap on the head. They have a thin white stripe down the center of their face, and their bushy black tails are fringed by and tipped in white.
Despite their commanding olfactory presence, skunks are passive, fairly shy animals. Their bold markings are all the warning most animals need to give these mustelids (members of the weasel family) a wide berth. Even at night, when skunks are most active, these white warning banners are clearly visible to other nocturnal creatures.
Skunks give additional warnings with agitated foot stamping. If the skunk continues to be threatened he will form his body into a "U" shape with both head and tail aimed at the attacker. Interestingly, Striped Skunks form this "U" shape by bending to the side, keeping all four feet on the ground. Spotted Skunks are a bit more acrobatic, balancing on their front feet while arching their backs up and over their heads to take aim at a threat.
Only as a last resort will the skunk spray his sulfide-laden musk from glands. They have a nearly 20-foot range, and are impressively accurate up to about 10 feet. If the liquid strikes an attacker in the eyes they will be temporarily blinded, and they will be reminded of the encounter for many weeks to come by the lingering stink.
Skunks are omnivores, but they have a strong affinity for insects, such as bees, grasshoppers, beetles and a variety of insect larvae. They spend much time rooting around and digging with their large, strong claws as they search for invertebrates. In addition they eat small mammals, such as mice and voles, nestling birds, eggs, fruits and berries, reptiles and some green vegetation. They will also eat carrion.
Skunks den in underground burrows or beneath windfalls or buildings. Spotted Skunks mate in September or October, but the eggs do not implant themselves in the uterine wall for some time after they are fertilized. Striped Skunks mate in February and March. Both Striped and Spotted Skunks give birth to an average of 5 or 6 young in April or May. The young nurse for six to seven weeks, and their potent musk glands are functional at about five to six weeks. Young skunks often spend winter with their mother and disperse in spring.
Skunks have surprisingly few natural predators for their size. This is a testament to the effectiveness of their chemical defense. Unfortunately many skunks are killed as they cross busy roadways at night. The scent deterrent is also not effective against a predator with a poor sense of smell, like a Great Horned Owl. It is not uncommon for a Great Horned Owl to be admitted to PAWS wearing the distinctive "cologne" of a recent skunk meal.
The most effective way to avoid conflicts with skunks is to remove attractants. Like other wild animals, skunks will take advantage of any readily available food source. Once they get used to finding food in the presence of humans, the chances for conflict are greatly increased.
Skunks sometimes dig in lawns to find grubs and worms. Usually damage is minimal, and since skunks tend not to stay long in one area, tolerance is the best course of action. If you do wish to protect your lawn, you can lay chicken wire over vulnerable areas and stake it down to prevent skunks from digging. Placing bright, motion-activated lights around your property may make it a less desirable foraging area, too.
Skunks may seek shelter under porches, in crawl spaces beneath houses, or under sheds where they can gain access through broken boards or large holes. From late summer through early spring, skunks will rarely stay at the same den site for more than a few days, so you can simply wait until they move on before sealing off access to the den site.
From early spring through summer, females with young may stay at a den site longer. If possible, wait until the young are old enough to leave with their mother before you attempt to exclude them. When you think the animals have left, tack a sheet of plastic over the entry. The next morning check to see if animals have broken through it. When all sign of activity has ceased, seal the entry.
Occasionally, skunks venture into houses through pet doors when they smell food on the other side. It is best to stay calm, close surrounding interior doors, leave the room and let the animal find his way out of the pet door or another open door. Lock pet doors at night or install a door that is electronically activated to open by signals from your pet's collar. Do not leave pet food near the opening.